Converting from Centigrade to Fahrenheit

Engineers that typically use U.S. customary units can be challenged when converting temperatures from Centigrade to Fahrenheit.  Sometimes you just want to get an insight of what the Centigrade temperature would feel like.  Its not critical to have a precise conversion that the traditional formula F = 9/5C + 32 gives.  For nontechnical work there is a quick way of getting an estimate of the Fahrenheit equivalent.  Rather than whipping out the calculator on screen, or the telephone or if you are really old fashioned a hand calculator how about exercising that brain and trying this trick.

  1. Take the temperature in Centigrade multiply by 2
  2. Subtract 2 times the value of the first digit of the temperature in Centigrade from 1.
  3. Add 32

Found this trick at

https://www.fodors.com/community/africa-the-middle-east/a-little-trick-for-converting-centigrade-to-fahrenheit.cfm

 

 

Top 20 Schools With Largest B.S. Biomedical Engineering Graduating Classes in 2011

Top twenty schools which offer undergraduate Biomedical Engineering (BME) degrees by total BME graduating class size for each school. These schools represent 2556 graduates. They represent about 63 percent of the total number of B.S. BME graduates for 2011. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects approximately 1300 new Biomedical Engineering jobs every year between 2008 and 2018. There is a significant mismatch between the actual number of total number of BME graduates (B.S., M.S., and Ph.D.) and the projected number of jobs (see link at bottom of table below).   This is particularly true for this field the additional engineering depth obtained in the higher degrees is very attractive to the medical device and drug industries.  Anyone interested in these programs should note that the size of a departments graduating class does not necessarily indicate a high level of quality when it comes to preparing a student for a corporate career.

How to increase your odds of gaining a position;

Experience Will Help Get You That Biomedical Engineering Position

Is the school you are interested in not listed? Check out their graduation rates at The Academic Program Information Resource

Top 20 By B.S. BME Graduating Class Size

 

Institution Name Men Women Total
University of California-San Diego 139 77 216
Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus 120 81 201
Duke University 109 70 179
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 106 70 176
Johns Hopkins University 102 61 163
University of Southern California 93 58 151
Boston University 83 58 141
New Jersey Institute of Technology 77 49 126
University of Pennsylvania 65 56 121
University of California-Berkeley 77 41 118
Drexel University 66 49 115
Case Western Reserve University 74 40 114
Northwestern University 74 40 114
University of California-Irvine 72 36 108
Arizona State University 69 35 104
The University of Texas at Austin 68 36 104
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 70 33 103
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 44 58 102
Washington University in St Louis 64 36 100
University of Connecticut 60 39 99

See also:
National Graduation Rates of Biomedical Engineers in 201 vs Job Projections

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Institution Name Men Women Total
University of California-San Diego 139 77 216
Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus 120 81 201
Duke University 109 70 179
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 106 70 176
Johns Hopkins University 102 61 163
University of Southern California 93 58 151
Boston University 83 58 141
New Jersey Institute of Technology 77 49 126
University of Pennsylvania 65 56 121
University of California-Berkeley 77 41 118
Drexel University 66 49 115
Case Western Reserve University 74 40 114
Northwestern University 74 40 114
University of California-Irvine 72 36 108
Arizona State University 69 35 104
The University of Texas at Austin 68 36 104
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 70 33 103
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 44 58 102
Washington University in St Louis 64 36 100
University of Connecticut 60 39 99

Top 20 Biomedical Engineering Programs Which Have The Highest Percentage of Women Graduates in 2011

The Biomedical Engineering programs attract a higher proportion of women than any other engineering programs.  I thought it would be interesting to show just how high the proportion is in some programs.  I am not aware of any definitive explanation for the high participation rate.  My guess is that the opportunity to contribute to the health of the community may be an important motivating factor.   The technical factors in the field are actually more challenging than other engineering fields given the multidisciplinary manner in which problems are addressed.   People who work in the healthcare field are typically attracted to the prospect of helping patients in need.   Biomedical Engineering positions hold the promise of working on projects that will positively impact the lives of many patients if they proceed to commercialization.  The following list is created from Biomedical Engineering programs graduating 20 or more Bachelor of Science graduates.

Institution Name Total % Female
Brown University 26 69%
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 102 57%
CUNY City College 34 56%
Santa Clara University 20 55%
Florida International University 49 53%
Oregon State University 21 52%
Wayne State University 64 52%
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 39 49%
Stevens Institute of Technology 66 48%
Yale University 33 48%
University of Rochester 81 48%
Columbia University in the City of New York 73 48%
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 46 48%
University of Virginia-Main Campus 89 47%
Rice University 66 47%
University of Pennsylvania 121 46%
Mississippi State University 39 46%
University of Toledo 37 46%
Vanderbilt University 83 46%
Michigan Technological University 35 46%

 

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National Statistics on the Number of Biomedical Engineers Graduating in 2011 vs. Job Projections

The following table was created from degree completion data available at the NCES website. The graduating statistics are important to know because there has been a consistent issue described by B.S. BME graduates seeking industry jobs in their field. It’s very difficult to get one with a baccalaureate degree. The number of graduates holding that degree in 2010 hold a clue to the problem and the challenge that B.S. graduates face. The baccalaureate numbers are troublesome for the graduate because the Bureau of Labor Statistics projections for new and replacement BME jobs 2010-2020 is approximately 1300 per year.

Of course the B.S. BME graduate numbers do not reflect how many graduates had been accepted to graduate school and medical school after graduation. For example, I received a personal communication from the AAMC (American Association of Medical Colleges) reporting 573 BME graduates were accepted into medical school in 2006. Graduate school enrollment numbers also impacts the number of B.S. graduates looking for work considerably because a significant number of graduates could be enrolling into M.S. programs if the number of M.S. graduates reported in 2008 is any guide. Unfortunately a number of those M.S. and Ph.D. BME graduates would also be competing for the the BME jobs counted and projected by the BLS. Additional research and analysis would be needed to get a better estimate of the number of BME graduates actually looking for work outside the academic and medical fields. It is interesting to note that females make up approximately 39% of the B.S. graduates and 39% for M.S. degree in this cohort. These are percentages which traditional engineering ( electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineering ) programs can not match.

Check out a particular programs graduation rates at The Academic Program Information Resource

 

Number of Biomedical Engineers Graduating in 2011
Men Women Total
B.S. 2445 1581 4026
Degree M.S. 907 604 1511
Ph.D. 507 316 823
Total 3859 2501 6360

Note: This chart is based on institutions reported primary and secondary degree completion data not reported total completion data so it may differ slightly in content from other reports of this type.

The Entry Level B.S. Biomedical Engineer’s Dilemma

Collected Views of What You Need to Know to Impress an Engineering Hiring Manager in Biomedical Industry

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What To Look For In A Biomedical Engineering Program If You Are Interested In A Corporate Career

Here are some suggested areas of inquiry to help the prospective student and parent find a Biomedical Engineering or Biomedical Engineering Technology program which is paying attention to the industry career potential of the degree.

1. The success rate of actively searching graduates that have obtained a position in their field in industry within 6 months.  This should be documented at the program website or in hard copy.  It should be more than 85%.  Ask how often the program checks their alumni.  They should survey and report at least once a year.

2. The number of times a year that an program meets with its industry advisers.  Once per year at a minimum twice a year is better.

3. Specific examples which demonstrate that the program is actually listening to the industry adviser input. Proof would be the use of industry standard software ( CAD, FEA, CFD, etc. ), electronic components ( cpu’s, a/d convertors, etc.), statistical packages, etc. in the laboratory environment.

3. Specific tracks, concentrations, specialties of 4 or more courses that give the graduate the basic background to competently design a subsystem or component in a medical device field or specialty ( imaging, sensors, bioreactors, prosthetics, biomechanics, biochemical engineering, etc. ) or a traditional field such as electronics, mechanics, chemical engineering, etc.

4. Laboratories for every science and engineering course.

5. Well defined internships, and co-op opportunities. Internship opportunities should require the cooperating institution to provide a substantive internship experience which meet specific career enhancing goals.

One Step Closer to Understanding In Situ Limb Regeneration

A group of scientists at University of Florida learned that a particular mouse strain recovered from certain wounds in a very interesting manner. Ashley W. Seifert, et. al found that African Spiny mice ( Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali ) regrow skin tissue and parts of limbs that they loose much like salamanders. Their skin is particularly fragile with tensile energy characteristics which are 77 times less than most other mouse and rat species. As a result when they struggle in an investigators hands the African Spiny mouse skin peels off. Even more remarkably within 30 days the skin replaces itself with little or no scarring.

Limb and tissue regeneration of this type is called autotomization. This article is apparently the first time that skin autotomy has been demonstrated in mammals.

Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys)

New Microscopic Technique Should Prove Useful in Nanotechnology Field

As we continue to explore the nanotechnology field for biomedical applications accurately measuring these miniscule components will be essential for designing, and manufacturing.  Designers need to know what the variability is on the manufacturing process.  Manufacturers need to know what type of statistical variability there is within the manufacturing process and therefore the specification limits.  Helium ion microscopy appears to be a technology that can meet these needs.

Helium Microscopy